Nutritional Supplement

DHEA

DHEA (dehydroepiandrosterone) is one of the hormones produced by the adrenal glands. After being secreted by the adrenal glands, it circulates in the bloodstream as DHEA-sulfate (DHEAS) and is converted as needed into other hormones.

References

1. Barrett-Connor E, von Mühlen D, Laughlin GA, Kripke A. Endogenous levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, but not other sex hormones, are associated with depressed mood in older women: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:685-91.

2. Heuser I, Deuschle M, Luppa P, et al. Increased diurnal plasma concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone in depressed patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:3130-3.

3. Morales AJ, Nolan JJ, Nelson JC, Yen SSC. Effects of replacement dose of DHEA in men and women of advancing age. J Clin Endorcrionol Metab 1994;78:1360.

4. Wolkowitz OM, Reus VI, Keebler A, et al. Double-blind treatment of major depression with dehydroepiandrosterone. Am J Psychiatry 1999;156:646-9.

5. Bloch M, Schmidt PJ, Danaceau MA, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone treatment of midlife dysthymia. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:1533-41.

6. Wolf OT, Neumann O, Hellhammer DH, et al. Effects of a two-week physiological dehydroepiandrosterone substitution on cognitive performance and well-being in healthy elderly women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2263-7.

7. Gaby AR. Research review. Nutr Healing 1997;8.

8. Vihma V, Heinonen S, Naukkarinen J, et al. Increased body fat mass and androgen metabolism - A twin study in healthy young women. Steroids 2018 12;140:24–31.

9. Aoki K, Terauchi Y. Effect of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity. Vitam Horm 2018;108:355–65.

10. Gómez-Santos C, Hernández-Morante JJ, Tébar FJ, et al. Differential effect of oral dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate on metabolic syndrome features in pre- and postmenopausal obese women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2012 Oct;77(4):548–54.

11. Weiss EP, Villareal DT, Fontana L, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement decreases insulin resistance and lowers inflammatory cytokines in aging humans. Aging (Albany NY) 2011 May;3(5):533–42.

12. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO. Effect of DHEA on abdominal fat and insulin action in elderly women and men: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 2004 Nov;292(18):2243–8.

13. Villareal DT, Holloszy JO, Kohrt WM. Effects of DHEA replacement on bone mineral density and body composition in elderly women and men. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000;53:561-8.

14. Jankowski CM, Gozansky WS, Schwartz RS, et al. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in older adults: a randomized, controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:2986-93.

15. Weiss EP, Shah K, Fontana L, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement therapy in older adults: 1- and 2-y effects on bone. Am J Clin Nutr 2009;89:1459-67.

16. Von Muhlen D, Laughlin GA, Kritz-Silverstein D, et al. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on bone mineral density, bone markers, and body composition in older adults: the DAWN trial. Osteoporos Int 2008;19:699-707.

17. Andus T, Klebl F, Rogler G, et al. Patients with refractory Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis respond to dehydroepiandrosterone: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:409-14.

18. Andus T, Klebl F, Rogler G, et al. Patients with refractory Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis respond to dehydroepiandrosterone: a pilot study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2003;17:409-14.

19. Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a prospective, double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled study. Urology 1999;53:590-5.

20. Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone in the treatment of erectile dysfunction: a prospective, double-blind randomized, placebo-controlled study. Urology 1999;53:590-5.

21. Ferrando SJ, Rabkin JG, Poretsky L. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and testosterone: relation to HIV illness stage and progression over one year. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999;22:146-54.

22. Rabkin JG, Ferrando SJ, Wagner GJ, Rabkin R. DHEA treatment for HIV + patients: effects on mood, androgenic and anabolic parameters. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2000;25:53-68.

23. Barry NN, McGuire JL, van Vollenhoven RF. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship between dosage, serum levels, and clinical response. J Rheumatol 1998;25:2352-6.

24. Van Vollenhoven RF, Morabito LM, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with dehyroepiandrosterone: 50 patients treated up to 12 months. J Rheumatol 1998;25:285-9.

25. Van Vollenhoven RF, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Dehydroepiandrosterone in systemic lupus erythematosus. Results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 1995;38:1826-31.

26. Van Vollenhoven RF, Park JL, Genovese MC, et al. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of dehydroepiandrosterone in severe systemic lupus erythematosus. Lupus 1999;8:181-7.

27. Orner GA, Mathews C, Hendricks JD, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone is a complete hepatocarcinogen and potent tumor promoter in the absence of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout. Carcinogenesis 1995;16:2893-8.

28. Metzger C, Mayer D, Hoffmann H, et al. Sequential appearance and ultrastructure of amphophilic cell foci, adenomas, and carcinomas in the liver of male and female rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone. Toxicol Pathol 1995;23:591-605.

29. Schwartz AG. Inhibition of spontaneous breast cancer formation in female C3H (A vy/a) mice by long-term treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone. Cancer Res 1979;39:1129-32.

30. McNeil C. Potential drug DHEA hits snags on way to clinic. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:681-3.

31. Jones JA, Nguyen A, Strab M, et al. Use of DHEA in a patient with advanced prostate cancer: a case report and review. Urology 1997;50:784-8.

32. Zumoff B, Levin J, Rosenfeld RS, et al. Abnormal 24-hr mean plasma concentrations of dehydroisoandrosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate in women with primary operable breast cancer. Cancer Res 1981;41:3360-3.

33. Skolnick AA. Scientific verdict still out on DHEA. JAMA 1996;276:1365-7 [review].

34. Sahelian R. New supplements and unknown, long-term consequences. Am J Natural Med 1997;4:8 [editorial].

35. Casson PR, Santoro N, Elkind-Hirsch K, et al. Postmenopausal dehydroepiandrosterone administration increases free insulin-like growth factor-I and decreases high-density lipoprotein: a six-month trial. Fertil Steril 1998;70:107-10.

36. Khorram O, Vu L, Yen SS. Activation of immune function by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in age-advanced men. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1997;52:M1-7.

37. Casson PR, Andersen RN, Herrod HG, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone in physiologic doses modulates immune function in postmenopausal women. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1993;169:1536-9.

38. Stomati M, Rubino S, Spinetti A, et al. Endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of oral dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate supplementation in postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol 1999;13:15-25.

39. Barnhart KT, Freeman E, Grisso JA, et al. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation to symptomatic perimenopausal women on serum endocrine profiles, lipid parameters, and health-related quality of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3896-902.

40. Stomati M, Rubino S, Spinetti A, et al. Endocrine, neuroendocrine and behavioral effects of oral dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate supplementation in postmenopausal women. Gynecol Endocrinol 1999;13:15-25.

41. Barnhart KT, Freeman E, Grisso JA, et al. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation to symptomatic perimenopausal women on serum endocrine profiles, lipid parameters, and health-related quality of life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999;84:3896-902.

42. Hillen T, Lun A, Reischies FM, et al. DHEA-S plasma levels and incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47:161-3.

43. Nasman B, Olsson T, Backstrom T, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in Alzheimer's disease and in multi-infarct dementia. Biol Psychiatry 1991;30:684-90.

44. Sunderland T, Merril CR, Harrington MG, et al. Reduced plasma dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 1989;2:570.

45. Yanase T, Fukahori M, Taniguchi S, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S) in Alzheimer's disease and in cerebrovascular dementia. Endocr J 1996;43:119-23.

46. Birkenhager-Gillesse EG, Derksen J, Lagaay AM. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) in the oldest old, aged 85 and over. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;719:543-52.

47. Schneider LS, Hinsey M, Lyness S. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry 1992;31:205-8.

48. Wolkowitz OM, Kramer JH, Reus VI, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone (NPI-34133) treatment of Alzheimer's disease: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, May 15-20, 1999.

49. Dukoff R, Molchan S, Putnam K, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone administration in demented patients and non-demented elderly volunteers. Biol Psychiatry 1999;46:1533-41.

50. Kuratsune H, Yamaguti K, Sawada M, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate deficiency in chronic fatigue syndrome. Int J Mol Med 1998;1:143-6.

51. De Becker P, De Meirleir K, Joos E, et al. Dehydroepiandorsterone (DHEA) response to i.v. ACTH in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Horm Metab Res 1999;31:18-21.

52. Morales AJ, Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, et al. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998;49:421-32.

53. Percheron G, Hogrel JY, Denot-Ledunois S, et al. Effect of 1-year oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to 60- to 80-year-old individuals on muscle function and cross-sectional area: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:720-7.

54. Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, Bucci L. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1788-92.

55. Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Sharp RL, et al. Effect of oral DHEA on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young men. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:2274-83.

56. Morales AJ, Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, et al. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998;49:421-32.

57. Percheron G, Hogrel JY, Denot-Ledunois S, et al. Effect of 1-year oral administration of dehydroepiandrosterone to 60- to 80-year-old individuals on muscle function and cross-sectional area: a double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Arch Intern Med 2003;163:720-7.

58. Wallace MB, Lim J, Cutler A, Bucci L. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone vs androstenedione supplementation in men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1999;31:1788-92.

59. Brown GA, Vukovich MD, Sharp RL, et al. Effect of oral DHEA on serum testosterone and adaptations to resistance training in young men. J Appl Physiol 1999;87:2274-83.

60. Araghiniknam M, Chung S, Nelson-White T, et al. Antioxidant activity of dioscorea and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in older humans. Life Sci 1996;11:147-57.

61. Gaby AR. Research review. Nutr Healing, 1996;Jan:7.

62. Casson PR, Buster JE. DHEA replacement after menopause: HRT 200 or nostrum of the ‘90s? Contemporary OB/GYN 1997;Apr:119-33.

63. Arlt W, Justl HG, Callies F, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone for adrenal androgen replacement: pharmacokinetics and peripheral conversion to androgens and estrogens in healthy young females after dexamethasone suppression. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:1928-34.

64. Parasrampuria J, Schwartz K, Petesch R. Quality control of dehydroepiandrosterone dietary supplement products. JAMA 1998;280:1565 [letter].

65. Ebeling P, Koivisto VA. Physiological importance of dehydroepiandrosterone. Lancet 1994;343:1479-81.

66. Arlt W, Callies F, van Vlijmen JC, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone replacement in women with adrenal insufficiency. N Engl J Med 1999;341:1013-20.

67. Gebre-Medhin G, Husebye ES, Mallmin H, et al. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement therapy in women with Addison's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 2000;52:775-80.

68. Barrett-Connor E, von Mühlen D, Laughlin GA, Kripke A. Endogenous levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, but not other sex hormones, are associated with depressed mood in older women: The Rancho Bernardo Study. J Am Geriatr Soc 1999;47:685-91.

69. Heinz A, Weingartner H, George D, et al. Severity of depression in abstinent alcoholics is associated with monoamine metabolites and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate concentrations. Psychiatry Res 1999;89:97-106.

70. Heuser I, Deuschle M, Luppa P, et al. Increased diurnal plasma concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone in depressed patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1998;83:3130-3.

71. Azuma T, Nagai Y, Saito T, et al. The effect of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate administration to patients with multi-infarct dementia. J Neurol Sci 1999;162:69-73.

72. Ferrando SJ, Rabkin JG, Poretsky L. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) and testosterone: relation to HIV illness stage and progression over one year. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1999;22:146-54.

73. Louviselli A, Pisanu P, Cossu E, et al. Low levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in adult males with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Minerva Endocrinol 1994;19:113-9.

74. Moriyama Y, Yasue H, Yoshimura M, et al. The plasma levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate are decreased in patients with chronic heart failure in proportion to the severity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000;85:1834-40.

75. Kümpfel T, Then Bergh F, Friess E, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone response to the adrenocorticotropin test and the combined dexamethasone and corticotropin-releasing hormone test in patients with multiple sclerosis. Neuroendocrinology 1999;70:431-8.

76. Weinstein RE, Lobocki CA, Gravett S, et al. Decreased adrenal sex steroid in the absence of glucocorticoid suppression in postmenopausal asthmatic women. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1996;97:1-8.

77. Dunn PJ; Mahood CB; Speed JF; Jury DR. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate concentrations in asthmatic patients: pilot study. N Z Med J 1984;97:805-8.

78. Kuratsune H, Yamaguti K, Sawada M, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate deficiency in chronic fatigue syndrome. Int J Mol Med 1998;1:143-6.

79. De Becker P, De Meirleir K, Joos E, et al. Dehydroepiandorsterone (DHEA) response to i.v. ACTH in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. Horm Metab Res 1999;31:18-21.

80. Khalkhali-Ellis Z, Moore TL, Hendrix MJ. Clin Exp Rheumatol 1998;16:753-6.

81. Hall GM, Perry LA, Spector TD. Depressed levels of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in postmenopausal women with rheumatoid arthritis but no relation with axial bone density. Ann Rheum Dis 1993;52:211-4.

82. Mateo L, Nolla JM, Bonnin MR, et al. Sex hormone status and bone mineral density in men with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol 1995;22:1455-60.

83. Gaby AR. Dehydroepiandrosterone: biological effects and clinical significance. Altern Med Rev 1996;1:60-9 [review].

84. Heikkila R, Aho K, Heliovaara M, et al. Serum androgen-anabolic hormones and the risk of rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis 1998;57:281-5.

85. Mileva Zh, Maleeva A, Khristov G. Androstenedione, DHEA sulfate, cortisol, aldosterone and testosterone in bronchial asthma patients. Vutr Boles. 1990;29:84-7 [in Bulgarian].

86. Reiter WJ, Pycha A, Schatzl G, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations in men with erectile dysfunction. Urology 2000;55:755-8.

87. Hillen T, Lun A, Reischies FM, et al. DHEA-S plasma levels and incidence of Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry 2000;47:161-3.

88. Nasman B, Olsson T, Backstrom T, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in Alzheimer's disease and in multi-infarct dementia. Biol Psychiatry 1991;30:684-90.

89. Sunderland T, Merril CR, Harrington MG, et al. Reduced plasma dehydroepiandrosterone concentrations in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 1989;2:570.

90. Yanase T, Fukahori M, Taniguchi S, et al. Serum dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA-sulfate (DHEA-S) in Alzheimer's disease and in cerebrovascular dementia. Endocr J 1996;43:119-23.

91. Birkenhager-Gillesse EG, Derksen J, Lagaay AM. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) in the oldest old, aged 85 and over. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1994;719:543-52.

92. Schneider LS, Hinsey M, Lyness S. Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in Alzheimer's disease. Biol Psychiatry 1992;31:205-8.

93. Van Vollenhoven RF, Morabito LM, Engleman EG, McGuire JL. Treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus with dehyroepiandrosterone: 50 patients treated up to 12 months. J Rheumatol 1998;25:285-9.

94. Markowitz JS, Carson WH, Jackson CW. Possible dihydroepiandrosterone-induced mania. Biol Psychiatry 1999;45:241-2.

95. Wolf OT, Neumann O, Hellhammer DH, et al. Effects of a two-week physiological dehydroepiandrosterone substitution on cognitive performance and well-being in healthy elderly women and men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:2263-7.

96. Bowers LD. Oral dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation can increase the testosterone/epitestosterone ratio. Clin Chem 1999;45:295-6.

97. Morales AJ, Nolan JJ, Nelson JC, Yen SSC. Effects of replacement dose of DHEA in men and women of advancing age. J Clin Endorcrionol Metab 1994;78:1360.

98. Orner GA, Mathews C, Hendricks JD, et al. Dehydroepiandrosterone is a complete hepatocarcinogen and potent tumor promoter in the absence of peroxisome proliferation in rainbow trout. Carcinogenesis 1995;16:2893-8.

99. Metzger C, Mayer D, Hoffmann H, et al. Sequential appearance and ultrastructure of amphophilic cell foci, adenomas, and carcinomas in the liver of male and female rats treated with dehydroepiandrosterone. Toxicol Pathol 1995;23:591-605.

100. McNeil C. Potential drug DHEA hits snags on way to clinic. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:681-3.

101. Jones JA, Nguyen A, Strab M, et al. Use of DHEA in a patient with advanced prostate cancer: a case report and review. Urology 1997;50:784-8.

102. Zumoff B, Levin J, Rosenfeld RS, et al. Abnormal 24-hr mean plasma concentrations of dehydroisoandrosterone and dehydroisoandrosterone sulfate in women with primary operable breast cancer. Cancer Res 1981;41:3360-3.

103. Helzlsouer KJ, Gordon GB, Alberg AJ, et al. Relationship of prediagnostic serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to the risk of developing premenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res 1992;52:1-4.

104. Dorgan JF, Longcope C, Stephenson HE, et al. Relation of prediagnostic serum estrogen and androgen levels to breast cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 1996;5:533-9.

105. Gordon GB, Bush TL, Helzlsouer KJ, et al. Relationship of serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to the risk of developing postmenopausal breast cancer. Cancer Res 1990;50:3859-62.

106. Berrino F, Muti P, Micheli A, et al. Serum sex hormone levels after menopause and subsequent breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1996;88:291-6.

107. Hankinson SE, Willett WC, Manson JE, et al. Plasma sex steroid hormone levels and risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. J Natl Cancer Inst 1998;90:1292-9.

108. Zeleniuch-Jacquotte A, Bruning PF, Bonfrer JM, et al. Relation of serum levels of testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate to risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Am J Epidemiol 1997;145:1030-8.

109. Barrett-Connor E, Friedlander NJ, Khaw KT. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and breast cancer risk. Cancer Res 1990;50:6571-4.

110. Bernstein L, Ross RK, Pike MC, et al. Hormone levels in older women: a study of post-menopausal breast cancer patients and healthy population controls. Br J Cancer 1990;61:298-302.

111. Johannes CB, Stellato RK, Feldman HA, et al. Relation of dehydroepiandrosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate with cardiovascular disease risk factors in women: longitudinal results from the Massachusetts Women's Health Study. J Clin Epidemiol 1999;52:95-103.

112. Morales AJ, Haubrich RH, Hwang JY, et al. The effect of six months treatment with a 100 mg daily dose of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on circulating sex steroids, body composition and muscle strength in age-advanced men and women. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 1998;49:421-32.

113. Helzlsouer KJ, Alberg AJ, Gordon GB, et al. Serum gonadotropins and steroid hormones and the development of ovarian cancer. JAMA 1995;274:1926-30.

114. Heinonen PK, Koivula T, Pystynen P. Decreased serum level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in postmenopausal women with ovarian cancer. Gynecol Obstet Invest 1987;23:271-4.

115. Schwartz AG. Inhibition of spontaneous breast cancer formation in female C3H (A vy/a) mice by long-term treatment with dehydroepiandrosterone. Cancer Res 1979;39:1129-32.

116. Sahelian R. New supplements and unknown, long-term consequences. Am J Natural Med 1997;4:8 [editorial].

117. Schunkert H, Hense H-W, Andus T, et al. Relation between dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and blood pressure levels in a population-based sample. Am J Hypertens 1999;12:1140-3.

118. Hautanen A, Manttari M, Manninen V, et al. Adrenal androgens and testosterone as coronary risk factors in the Helsinki Heart Study. Atherosclerosis 1994;105:191-200.

119. Kiechl S, Willeit J, Bonora E, et al. No association between dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and development of atherosclerosis in a prospective population study (Bruneck Study). Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2000;20:1094-100.

120. Suzuki M, Kanazawa A, Hasegawa M, et al. A close association between insulin resistance and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate in subjects with essential hypertension. Endocr J 1999;46:521-8.

121. Casson PR, Santoro N, Elkind-Hirsch K, et al. Postmenopausal dehydroepiandrosterone administration increases free insulin-like growth factor-I and decreases high-density lipoprotein: a six-month trial. Fertil Steril 1998;70:107-10.

Copyright © 2022 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learn more about TraceGains, the company.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2022.