Nutritional Supplement


Chromium is an essential trace mineral that helps the body maintain normal blood sugar levels.


1. Chen S, Jin X, Shan Z, et al. Inverse Association of Plasma Chromium Levels with Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Case-Control Study. Nutrients 2017;9.

2. McIver D, Grizales A, Brownstein J, Goldfine A. Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Is Lower in US Adults Taking Chromium-Containing Supplements. J Nutr 2015;145:2675–82.

3. Ngala R, Awe M, Nsiah P. The effects of plasma chromium on lipid profile, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetes mellitus. A case - control study. PLoS One 2018;13:e0197977.

4. Rajendran K, Manikandan S, Nair L, et al. Serum Chromium Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients and Its Association with Glycaemic Control. J Clin Diagn Res 2015;9:Oc05–8.

5. Farrokhian A, Mahmoodian M, Bahmani F, et al. The Influences of Chromium Supplementation on Metabolic Status in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Coronary Heart Disease. Biol Trace Elem Res 2019.

6. Huang H, Chen G, Dong Y, et al. Chromium supplementation for adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from a pooled analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res 2018;62.

7. Brownley K, Boettiger C, Young L, Cefalu W. Dietary chromium supplementation for targeted treatment of diabetes patients with comorbid depression and binge eating. Med Hypotheses 2015;85:45–8.

8. Anderson RA et al. Chromium supplementation of humans with hypoglycemia. Fed Proc 1984;43:471.

9. Stebbing JB et al. Reactive hypoglycemia and magnesium. Magnesium Bull 1982;2:131-4.

10. Shansky A. Vitamin B3 in the alleviation of hypoglycemia. Drug Cosm Ind 1981;129(4):68-69,104-5.

11. Gaby AR, Wright JV. Nutritional regulation of blood glucose. J Advancement Med 1991;4:57-71.

12. Maret W. Chromium Supplementation in Human Health, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes. Met Ions Life Sci 2019;19.

13. Bai J, Xun P, Morris S, et al. Chromium exposure and incidence of metabolic syndrome among American young adults over a 23-year follow-up: the CARDIA Trace Element Study. Sci Rep 2015;5:15606.

14. Nussbaumerova B, Rosolova H, Krizek M, et al. Chromium Supplementation Reduces Resting Heart Rate in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome and Impaired Glucose Tolerance. Biol Trace Elem Res 2018;183:192–9.

15. Ali A, Ma Y, Reynolds J, et al. Chromium effects on glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in persons at risk for diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract 2011;17:16–25.

16. Iqbal N, Cardillo S, Volger S, et al. Chromium picolinate does not improve key features of metabolic syndrome in obese nondiabetic adults. Metab Syndr Relat Disord 2009;7:143–50.

17. Huang H, Chen G, Dong Y, et al. Chromium supplementation for adjuvant treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Results from a pooled analysis. Mol Nutr Food Res 2018;62.

18. Lin C, Huang Y. Chromium, zinc and magnesium status in type 1 diabetes. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care 2015;18:588–92.

19. Peruzzu A, Solinas G, Asara Y, et al. Association of trace elements with lipid profiles and glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in northern Sardinia, Italy: An observational study. Chemosphere 2015;132:101–7.

20. Gluschenko N, Vasylyshyn K, Roschupkin A, et al. The content of microelements in blood serum and erythrocytes in children with diabetes mellitus type 1 depending on level of glycemic control. Georgian Med News 2016:66–71.

21. Littlefield D. Chromium decreases blood glucose in a patient with diabetes. J Am Diet Assoc 1994;94:1368.

22. Fox G, Sabovic Z. Chromium picolinate supplementation for diabetes mellitus. J Fam Pract 1998;46:83–6.

23. Ganguly R, Sahu S, Ohanyan V, et al. Oral chromium picolinate impedes hyperglycemia-induced atherosclerosis and inhibits proatherogenic protein TSP-1 expression in STZ-induced type 1 diabetic ApoE(-/-) mice. Sci Rep 2017;7:45279.

24. Maret W. Chromium Supplementation in Human Health, Metabolic Syndrome, and Diabetes. Met Ions Life Sci 2019;19.

25. Tsang C,Taghizadeh M,Aghabagheri E, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of chromium supplementation on anthropometric indices of subjects with overweight or obesity. Clinical obesity. 2019 Aug;9(4):e12313

26. Tian H,Guo X,Wang X, et al. Chromium picolinate supplementation for overweight or obese adults. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2013 Nov;11:CD010063

27. Onakpoya I,Posadzki P,Ernst E. Chromium supplementation in overweight and obesity: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Obesity Reviews. 2013 Jun;14(6):496-507

28. Brownley KA, Von Holle A, Hamer RM, et al. A double-blind, randomized pilot trial of chromium picolinate for binge eating disorder: results of the Binge Eating and Chromium (BEACh) study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 2013 Jul;75(1):36-42.

29. Xiao L, Zhou Y, Ma J, et al. The cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of chromium with dyslipidemia: A prospective cohort study of urban adults in China. Chemosphere 2019;215:362–9.

30. Lima KV, Lima RP, Gonçalves MC, et al. High frequency of serum chromium deficiency and association of chromium with triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations in patients awaiting bariatric surgery. Obes Surg 2014;24:771–6.

31. Tarrahi MJ, Tarrahi MA, Rafiee M, et al. The effects of chromium supplementation on lipidprofile in humans: A systematic review and meta-analysis ofrandomized controlled trials. Pharmacol Res 2021;164:105308.

32. Asbaghi O, Naeini F, Ashtary-Larky D, et al. Effects of chromium supplementation on lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Trace Elem Med Biol 2021;66:126741.

33. Zhao F, Pan D, Wang N, et al. Effect of Chromium Supplementation on Blood Glucose and Lipid Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Biol Trace Elem Res 2022;200:516–25.

34. Lee NA, Reasner CA. Beneficial effect of chromium supplementation on serum triglyceride levels in NIDDM. Diabetes Care 1994;17:1449-52.

35. Abraham AS, Brooks BA, Eylath U. The effects of chromium supplementation on serum glucose and lipids in patients with and without non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Metabolism 1992;41:768-71.

36. Thomas VL, Gropper SS. Effect of chromium nicotinic acid supplementation on selected cardiovascular disease risk factors. Biol Trace Elem Res 1996;55:297-305.

37. Rabinowitz MB, Gonick HC, Levin SR, Davidson MB. Effects of chromium and yeast supplements on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in diabetic men. Diabetes Care 1983;6:319-27.

38. Uusitupa MI, Kumpulainen JT, Voutilainen E, et al. Effect of inorganic chromium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin response, and serum lipids in noninsulin-dependent diabetics. Am J Clin Nutr 1983;38:404-10.

39. Offenbacher EG, Pi-Sunyer FX. Beneficial effect of chromium-rich yeast on glucose tolerance and blood lipids in elderly subjects. Diabetes 1980;29:919-25.

40. Offenbacher EG, Rinko CJ, Pi-Sunyer FX. The effects of inorganic chromium and brewer's yeast on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, and plasma chromium in elderly subjects. Am J Clin Nutr 1985;42:454-61.

41. Roeback JR Jr, Hla KM, Chambless LE, Fletcher RH. Effects of chromium supplementation on serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in men taking beta-blockers. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 1991;115:917-24.

42. Wilson BE, Gondy A. Effects of chromium supplementation on fasting insulin levels and lipid parameters in healthy, non-obese young subjects. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 1995;28:179-84.

43. Page TG, Ward TL, Southern LL. Effect of chromium picolinate on growth and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. J Animal Sci 1991;69:356.

44. Lefavi R, Anderson R, Keith R, et al. Efficacy of chromium supplementation in athletes: emphasis on anabolism. Int J Sport Nutr 1992;2:111-22.

45. McCarty MF. The case for supplemental chromium and a survey of clinical studies with chromium picolinate. J Appl Nutr 1991;43:59-66.

46. Anderson RA. Effects of chromium on body composition and weight loss. Nutr Rev 1998;56:266-70.

47. Vincent J. The potential value and toxicity of chromium picolinate as a nutritional supplement, weight loss agent and muscle development agent. Sports Med 2003;33:213-30 [review].

48. Campbell WW, Joseph LJ, Davey SL, et al. Effects of resistance training and chromium picolinate on body composition and skeletal muscle in older men. J Appl Physiol 1999;86:29-39.

49. Livolsi JM, Adams GM, Laguna PL. The effect of chromium picolinate on muscular strength and body composition in women athletes. J Strength Cond Res 2001;15:161-6.

50. Volpe SL, Huang HW, Larpadisorn K, Lesser II. Effect of chromium supplementation and exercise on body composition, resting metabolic rate and selected biochemical parameters in moderately obese women following an exercise program. J Am Coll Nutr 2001;20:293-306.

51. Kaats GR, Blum K, Fisher JA, Adelman JA. Effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study. Curr Ther Res 1996;57:747-56.

52. Kaats GR, Blum K, Pullin D, et al. A randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled study of the effects of chromium picolinate supplementation on body composition: a replication and extension of a previous study. Curr Ther Res 1998;59:379-88.

53. McLeod MN, Gaynes BN, Golden RN. Chromium potentiation of antidepressant pharmacotherapy for dysthymic disorder in 5 patients. J Clin Psychiatry 1999;60:237-40.

54. Sterns DM, Belbruno JJ, Wetterhahn KE. A prediction of chromium (III) accumulation in humans from chromium dietary supplements. FASEB J 1995;9:1650-7.

55. Sterns DM, Wise JP, Patierno SR, Wetterhahn KE. Chromium (III) picolinate produces chromosome damage in Chinese hamster ovary cells. FASEB J 1995;9:1643-9.

56. Speetjens JK, Collins RA, Vincent JB, Woski SA. The nutritional supplement chromium (III) tris(picolinate) cleaves DNA. Chem Res Toxicol 1999;12:483-7.

57. Garland M, Morris JS, Colditz GA, et al. Toenail trace element levels and breast cancer. Am J Epidemiol 1996;144:653-60.

58. Cerulli J, Grabe DW, Guathier I, et al. Chromium picolinate toxicity. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:428-31.

59. Shannon M. Alternative medicines toxicology: a review of selected agents. J Clin Toxicol 1999;37:709-13.

60. Wasser WG, Feldman NS. Chronic renal failure after ingestion of over-the-counter chromium picolinate. Ann Intern Med 1997;126:410 [letter].

61. Martin WR, Fuller RE. Suspected chromium picolinate-induced rhabdomyolysis. Pharmacotherapy 1998;18:860-2.

Copyright © 2022 TraceGains, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learn more about TraceGains, the company.

The information presented by TraceGains is for informational purposes only. It is based on scientific studies (human, animal, or in vitro), clinical experience, or traditional usage as cited in each article. The results reported may not necessarily occur in all individuals. For many of the conditions discussed, treatment with prescription or over the counter medication is also available. Consult your doctor, practitioner, and/or pharmacist for any health problem and before using any supplements or before making any changes in prescribed medications. Information expires December 2022.